The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers detected by the pierre auger observatory

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13 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65°. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)266-276
Number of pages11
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume35
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energı´a Atómica , Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza , Municipalidad de Malargüe , NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas , in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access, Argentina; the Australian Research Council; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientı´fico e Tecnológico (CNPq) , Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP) , Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) , Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) , Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT) , Brazil; AVCR , AV0Z10100502 and AV0Z10100522 , GAAV KJB300100801 and KJB100100904 , MSMT-CR LA08016 , LC527 , 1M06002 , and MSM0021620859 , Czech Republic; Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS , Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , Conseil Régional Ile-de-France , Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS) , Département Sciences de l’Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS) , France; Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) , Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) , Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg , Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) , Ministerium für Innovation , Wissenschaft und Forschung , Nordrhein-Westfalen , Ministerium für Wissenschaft , Forschung und Kunst , Baden-Württemberg , Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) , Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF) , Ministero dell’Istruzione , dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR) , Gran Sasso Center for Astroparticle Physics (CFA) , Italy; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologı´a (CONACYT) , Mexico; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap , Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) , Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM) , Netherlands; Ministry of Science and Higher Education , Grant Nos. 1 P03 D 014 30 and N N202 207238 , Poland; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia , Portugal; Ministry for Higher Education , Science, and Technology , Slovenian Research Agency , Slovenia; Comunidad de Madrid , Consejerı´a de Educación de la Comunidad de Castilla La Mancha , FEDER funds, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación and Consolider-Ingenio 2010 (CPAN) , Generalitat Valenciana , Junta de Andalucı´a , Xunta de Galicia , Spain; Science and Technology Facilities Council , United Kingdom; Department of Energy , Contract Nos. DE-AC02-07CH11359 , DE-FR02–04ER41300 , National Science Foundation , Grant No. 0969400 , The Grainger Foundation USA; NAFOSTED , VietNam; ALFA-EC/ HELEN , European Union 6th Framework Program , Grant No. MEIF-CT-2005-025057 , European Union 7th Framework Program , Grant No. PIEF-GA-2008-220240 , and UNESCO .

Keywords

  • Extensive air showers
  • Hybrid detector
  • Pierre Auger Observatory
  • Surface detector
  • Trigger performance
  • Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays

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