The influences of linguistic demand and cultural loading on cognitive test scores

Damien C. Cormier, Kevin S. McGrew, James E. Ysseldyke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The increasing diversity of the U.S. population has resulted in increased concerns about the psychological assessment of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. To date, little empirical research supports recommendations in test selection and interpretation, such as those presented in the Culture–Language Interpretative Matrix (C-LIM). The current investigation was conducted to empirically evaluate the validity of the C-LIM classifications for the Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition (WJ III COG). The WJ III Normative Update standardization sample was used to determine the extent to which the two dimensions of the C-LIM (i.e., cultural loading and linguistic demand) influence performance on 20 of the WJ III tests. Results provide support for a re-classification of the C-LIM. Implications for research and school psychology practices are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-623
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 SAGE Publications.


  • Assessment
  • Cognitive abilities
  • Cultural loading
  • Diversity
  • Linguistic demand


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