The influence of soil age on ecosystem structure and function across biomes

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Peter B. Reich, Richard D. Bardgett, David J. Eldridge, Hans Lambers, David A. Wardle, Sasha C. Reed, César Plaza, G. Kenny Png, Sigrid Neuhauser, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Stephen C. Hart, Hang Wei Hu, Ji Zheng He, Felipe Bastida, Sebastián Abades, Fernando D. Alfaro, Nick A. Cutler, Antonio Gallardo, Laura García-VelázquezPatrick E. Hayes, Zeng Yei Hseu, Cecilia A. Pérez, Fernanda Santos, Christina Siebe, Pankaj Trivedi, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Luis Weber-Grullon, Mark A. Williams, Noah Fierer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


The importance of soil age as an ecosystem driver across biomes remains largely unresolved. By combining a cross-biome global field survey, including data for 32 soil, plant, and microbial properties in 16 soil chronosequences, with a global meta-analysis, we show that soil age is a significant ecosystem driver, but only accounts for a relatively small proportion of the cross-biome variation in multiple ecosystem properties. Parent material, climate, vegetation and topography predict, collectively, 24 times more variation in ecosystem properties than soil age alone. Soil age is an important local-scale ecosystem driver; however, environmental context, rather than soil age, determines the rates and trajectories of ecosystem development in structure and function across biomes. Our work provides insights into the natural history of terrestrial ecosystems. We propose that, regardless of soil age, changes in the environmental context, such as those associated with global climatic and land-use changes, will have important long-term impacts on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems across biomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4721
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 18 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).


  • Bacteria/classification
  • Biodiversity
  • Biomass
  • Biota
  • Climate
  • Ecosystem
  • Fungi/classification
  • Microbiota
  • Plants/classification
  • Soil/chemistry
  • Time Factors

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Journal Article


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