The influence of sex, gender, self-discrepancies, and self-awareness on anger and verbal aggressiveness among U.S. college students

Terry A. Kinney, Brian A. Smith, Bonny Donzella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Among a sample of 445 U.S. college students, the authors examined the extent to which individual differences (e.g., sex, gender, self-discrepancies, self-awareness) explained anger tendencies and verbal aggressiveness. Regression analyses showed that (a) the tendency to repress anger (anger-in) was explained by masculinity, desire to be masculine, and public self-awareness, R2 = .19, F(11, 433) = 8.44, p < .001; (b) the tendency to express anger (anger-out) was explained by sex, masculinity, and public self-awareness, R2 = .17, F(11, 433) = 7.38, p < .001; and (c) willingness to be verbally aggresssive was explained by sex, femininity, and private self-awareness, R2 = .32 F(11, 433) = 16.94, p < .001. In addition, different types of individual difference variables accounted for anger tendencies and verbal aggressiveness across sex and gender categories, suggesting that anger and verbal aggressiveness may be driven by different psychological process across types of participants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-275
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Social Psychology
Volume141
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2001

Keywords

  • Anger
  • Gender
  • Self-awareness
  • Self-discrepancies
  • Sex
  • Verbal aggressiveness

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