The independent and combined effects of aerobic exercise training (AEX) and weight loss (WL) on blood pressure (BP) and oral glucose tolerance were studied in 97 nondiabetic, sedentary, older men. The men were assigned to either a WL (n = 31), AEX (n = 35), AEX+WL (n = 20) intervention, or to a control (CON) group (n = 11). The AEX regimen consisted of 3 days/week for 9 months, whereas WL consisted of a behavioral modification weight loss program that met weekly for 9 months. Maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly (P < .05) in both the AEX and AEX+WL groups (Δ change: 0.45 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.07 L/min, respectively; mean ± SEM), but did not change in the WL (Δ change: 0.00 ± 0.04 L/min) and CON (-0.05 ± 0.07 L/min) groups. The AEX+WL and WL groups had comparable reductions in body weight (-8.6 ± 0.7 and -8.8 ± 0.7 kg,) and %fat (-5.4 ± 0.5 and -5.2 ± 0.6%) that were significantly greater than the CON and AEX groups, in which neither body weight nor %fat changed. The AEX, WL, and AEX+WL groups had significant reductions in both systolic (-6.4 ± 1.3, -9.2 ± 1.6, and -9.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, respectively) and diastolic (-5.2 ± 1.0, -6.2 ± 1.3, and -7.2 ± 1.5 mm Hg, respectively) BP after their respective interventions compared with the change in systolic (3.2 ± 3.6 mm Hg) and diastolic (-0.5 ± 1.9 mm Hg) BP in the CON group. The AEX, WL, and AEX+WL groups also had significant reductions in glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test compared with the CON group. The reduction in the insulin area in the AEX+WL group was significantly greater than in the AEX and WL groups. The results of this study demonstrate that AEX and WL are effective nonpharmacologic therapies to lower BP and alter glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge. However, combining the two interventions does not result in any further improvement in BP.
- Insulin resistance