The incidence of biphalangeal fifth toe: Comparison of normal population and patients with foot deformity

Hanifi Ucpunar, Yalkın Camurcu, Cagri Ozcan, Abdul Fettah Buyuk, Suleyman Kasim Tas, Adem Cobden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Pedal biphalangism, which was also defined as symphalangism, is seen at a frequency that cannot be ignored; however, no study can be found in the literature evaluating biphalangism in normal population in comparison to those who have foot disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the pedal fifth toe symphalangism in normal population and in patients with foot deformity including hallux valgus, pes planus, pes cavus, and pes equinovarus. We hypothesized that pedal fifth toe symphalangism may be a predisposing factor or an accompanying structural variation for foot deformity. Materials: Patients admitted to the emergency department of our center in October and November 2016 were defined as the control group, and patients with the diagnosis of hallux valgus, pes planus, pes cavus, and pes equinovarus treated between 2011 and 2016 in our department were defined as the foot deformity group. Individuals who had anteroposterior, oblique, and lateral radiographs of foot were included in the study. Results: One thousand and four patients participated in the cross-sectional observational study. Biphalangeal fifth toe was found in 328 of 1004 (32.7%) patients. In foot deformity group (n = 672), 222 patients (33%) had biphalangeal fifth toe. In the control group, 106 (31.9%) of the 332 patients had biphalangeal fifth toe. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of biphalangeal fifth toe between the two groups (p = 0.72). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, biphalangeal fifth toe is a common pedal anatomical variant seen approximately in one-third of the population who have either foot deformity or not. This information may be valuable for podiatrist undertaking the conservative or surgical treatment of fifth toe-related disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 26 2019


  • biphalangeal fifth toe
  • biphalangism
  • foot deformity
  • symphalangism


Dive into the research topics of 'The incidence of biphalangeal fifth toe: Comparison of normal population and patients with foot deformity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this