The impact of the 2014 Ebola epidemic on HIV disease burden and outcomes in Liberia West Africa

Soka J. Moses, Ian Wachekwa, Collin van Ryn, Greg Grandits, Alice Pau, Moses Badio, Stephen B. Kennedy, Michael C. Sneller, Elizabeth S. Higgs, H. Clifford Lane, Mosoka Fallah, Stephen A. Migueles, Cavan Reilly

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Background Detailed longitudinal studies of HIV-positive individuals in West Africa are lacking. Here the HIV prevalence, incidence, all-cause mortality, and the proportion of individuals receiving treatment with cART in two cohorts of participants in Ebola-related studies are described. Setting Individuals of all ages were enrolled and followed at four sites in the area of Monrovia, Liberia. Methods Two cohorts identified in response to the Ebola epidemic are described to provide insights into the current state of the HIV epidemic. HIV testing was performed at baseline for participants in both cohorts and during follow-up in one cohort. Results Prevalence and incidence of HIV (prevalence of 3.1% for women and 1.4% for men and incidence of 3.3 per 1,000) were higher in these cohorts compared to 2018 national estimates (prevalence of 1.3% and incidence of 0.39 per 1,000). Most participants testing positive did not know their status prior to testing. Of those who knew they were HIV positive, 7.9% reported being on antiretroviral treatment. The death rate among those with HIV was 12.3% compared to 1.9% in HIV-negative individuals (adjusted odds ratio of 6.87). While higher levels of d-dimer were associated with increased mortality, this was not specific to those with HIV, however lower hemoglobin levels were associated with increased mortality among those with HIV. Conclusion These findings point to a need to perform further research studies aimed at fulfilling these knowledge gaps and address current shortcomings in the provision of care for those living with HIV in Liberia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0257049
JournalPloS one
Issue number9 September
StatePublished - Sep 2021

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