The impact of respiratory motion on electromagnetic fields and specific absorption rate in cardiac imaging at 7T

Natalie Schoen, Frank Seifert, Johannes Petzold, Gregory J. Metzger, Oliver Speck, Bernd Ittermann, Sebastian Schmitter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: To present electromagnetic simulation setups for detailed analyses of respiration's impact on (Formula presented.) and E-fields, local specific absorption rate (SAR) and associated safety-limits for 7T cardiac imaging. Methods: Finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic field simulations were performed at five respiratory states using a breathing body model and a 16-element 7T body transceiver RF-coil array. (Formula presented.) and SAR are analyzed for fixed and moving coil configurations. SAR variations are investigated using phase/amplitude shimming considering (i) a local SAR-controlled mode (here SAR calculations consider RF amplitudes and phases) and (ii) a channel-wise power-controlled mode (SAR boundary calculation is independent of the channels' phases, only dependent on the channels' maximum amplitude). Results: Respiration-induced variations of both (Formula presented.) amplitude and phase are observed. The flip angle homogeneity depends on the respiratory state used for (Formula presented.) shimming; best results were achieved for shimming on inhale and exhale simultaneously ((Formula presented.)). The results reflect that respiration impacts position and amplitude of the local SAR maximum. With the local-SAR-control mode, a safety factor of up to 1.4 is needed to accommodate for respiratory variations while the power control mode appears respiration-robust when the coil moves with respiration (SAR peak decrease: 9% exhale→inhale). Instead, a spatially fixed coil setup yields higher SAR variations with respiration. Conclusion: Respiratory motion does not only affect the (Formula presented.) distribution and hence the image contrast, but also location and magnitude of the peak spatial SAR. Therefore, respiration effects may need to be included in safety analyses of RF coils applied to the human thorax.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2645-2661
Number of pages17
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), grant number SCHM 2677/2‐1. We thank Christoph Stefan Aigner and Sebastian Dietrich for supporting discussions. We thank M. Arcan Ertürk for his support in generating the coil model. Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.


  • B mapping
  • FDTD simulation
  • body imaging
  • parallel transmission (pTx)
  • peak spatial SAR
  • respiration
  • ultrahigh field
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Humans
  • Radio Waves
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
  • Computer Simulation
  • Phantoms, Imaging

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR) tags

  • BI
  • P41

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Journal Article


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