The impact of individual and organisational factors on engagement of individuals with intellectual disability living in community group homes: A multilevel model

X. Qian, R. Tichá, S. A. Larson, R. J. Stancliffe, A. Wuorio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Being engaged in daily activities is a strong indicator of quality of life for individuals with intellectual disability (ID) who live in small community group homes. This study aimed to identify individual and organisational factors that predict high levels of engagement. Method: Individuals with ID (n=78), direct support professionals (DSPs; n=174) and supervisors (n=21) from 21 US group homes participated in the study. For each individual with ID, we conducted 80min of observation at the person's residence. Information was also gathered regarding demographic characteristics, DSP competence, supervisor years of experience and management practices. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Results: On average, individuals were engaged in social activities 12% of observed time and non-social activities 35% of the time. Individuals with greater adaptive skills who were supported by more competent staff showed significantly higher levels of social engagement. Individuals with less severe deficits in adaptive behaviours and less challenging behaviour showed higher levels of non-social engagement. Although none of the factors related to group homes were significant, 24% of the variance in non-social engagement existed among group homes. Conclusion: These results suggested that engagement is a dynamic construct. The extent to which an individual with ID is engaged in daily life is a result of interplay between the individual's characteristics and the group home environment. Future research is needed to investigate the influence of variables specific to the group home on the engagement level of individuals with disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-505
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Intellectual Disability Research
Volume59
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015

Keywords

  • Active support
  • Community living
  • Engagement
  • Group homes
  • Multilevel model
  • Organisational context

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