Multiple myeloma (MM) remains as an incurable disease, despite recent substantial improvements in treatment. Therefore, development of novel biomarkers for risk stratification and new therapeutic targets are imperative. One of the emerging treatments for MM is the immune checkpoint blockades. V-set Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4) is a lately studied B7-related immune checkpoint modulator. We assessed the VSIG4 expression in patients with MM and its prognostic impact. We analyzed 81 bone marrow and 66 extramedullary biopsy samples of MM patients using immunohistochemistry. VSIG4 mRNA expression data from the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) were analyzed to validate our results. The overall survival (OS) of the high VSIG4 expression group was significantly poorer than that of the low VSIG4 expression group (p = 0.046). VSIG4 expression was remained statistically significant after adjustment for revised international staging system (rISS) and Mayo stratification algorithm (mSMART) risk classification, respectively (p = 0.019 and 0.017). Corroborating results were also observed on analyses of VSIG4 expression in patients with extramedullary MM and external data from the MMGP. Our results suggest that VSIG4 expression in MM is an independent indicator of poor prognosis, implying a possible therapeutic target for immunotherapy for MM.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, 453 Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family affairs (0920040 to I.C.),the National 454 Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government, 455 (MSIP) (no. R13-2007-023-00000-0 to I.C.), the National Research Foundation of Korea and MRC grant (no. 2008-0062286 to C.S.P.), and the Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul, Korea (no. 2012-527 to C.S.P.).The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Immune checkpoint
- Multiple myeloma