The hybrid reciprocal velocity obstacle

Jamie Snape, Jur Van Den Berg, Stephen J. Guy, Dinesh Manocha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

217 Scopus citations


We present the hybrid reciprocal velocity obstacle for collision-free and oscillation-free navigation of multiple mobile robots or virtual agents. Each robot senses its surroundings and acts independently without central coordination or communication with other robots. Our approach uses both the current position and the velocity of other robots to compute their future trajectories in order to avoid collisions. Moreover, our approach is reciprocal and avoids oscillations by explicitly taking into account that the other robots sense their surroundings as well and change their trajectories accordingly. We apply hybrid reciprocal velocity obstacles to iRobot Create mobile robots and demonstrate direct, collision-free, and oscillation-free navigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5746538
Pages (from-to)696-706
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Robotics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Mr. Guy is the recipient of the National Science Foundation AGEP Fellowship, the Intel Corporation GEM Fellowship, and the United Negro College Fund Google Scholarship.

Funding Information:
Manuscript received August 23, 2010; revised January 13, 2011; accepted February 21, 2011. Date of publication April 7, 2011; date of current version August 10, 2011. This paper was recommended for publication by Associate Editor S. Carpin and Editor J.-P. Laumond upon evaluation of the reviewers’ comments. This work was supported by the Army Research Office under Contract W911NF-04-1-0088, by the National Science Foundation under Award 0636208, Award 0917040, and Award 0904990, by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command under Contract WR91CRB-08-C-0137, and by Intel Corporation. This paper was presented in part at the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, St. Louis, MO, October 2009.


  • Collision avoidance
  • mobile robots
  • motion planning
  • multirobot systems
  • navigation


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