Sequestering of latent HIV in follicular helper T cells within B-cell follicles that largely exclude cytotoxic T cells is a major barrier to cellular immune-based approaches to eradicate HIV. Here, we show that the clinical-grade human interleukin-15 (IL-15) superagonist ALT-803 activates and redirects simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD81 T cells from the peripheral blood into B-cell follicles. In agreement with the increased trafficking of SIVspecific cytotoxic T cells to sites of cryptic viral replication, lymph nodes of elite controlling macaques contained fewer cells expressing SIV RNA or harboring SIV DNA post-ALT-803 treatment. These data establish ALT-803 as an immunotherapeutic for HIV and other chronic viral pathogens that evade host immunity by persisting in B-cell follicles.
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© 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.