Objective: To investigate the characteristics and trends in the HIV epidemic in Yunnan province, China, between 1989 and 2007. Methods: Statistical analysis of serological data from voluntary testing and counseling sites, medical case reports, mass screenings, sentinel surveillance, and other sources. Results: By 2007, a cumulative total of 57,325 cases of HIV infection were reported in Yunnan, and unsafe drug injection practices and unsafe sexual behaviors were identified as the dominant modes of transmission. HIV affects injecting drug users most, particularly in Jingpo, Dai, and Yi ethnicities, more than 40% in 7 counties. HIV prevalence rates among female sex workers (FSWs) increased from 0.5% in 1995 to 4.0% in 2007; among men who have sex with men, from 4.0% in 2005 to 13.2% in 2007; among male clients of FSWs, from 0% in 1995-1997 to 1.8% in 2007; among male sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees, from 0% in 1992 to 2.1% in 2007; among pregnant women from 0.16% in 1992 to 0.5% in 2007; and among blood donors, from 0.0075% in 1992 to 0.084% in 2007. Conclusions: The HIV epidemic in Yunnan has progressed to a concentrated epidemic. Future efforts must focus on not only groups at risk for primary infection (injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, and FSWs) but also on their low-risk sexual partners.
- Case report
- Sentinel surveillance