The Historical Oppression Scale: Preliminary conceptualization and measurement of historical oppression among Indigenous peoples of the United States

Catherine E. McKinley, Shamra Boel-Studt, Lynette M. Renner, Charles R. Figley, Shanondora Billiot, Katherine P. Theall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Indigenous peoples of the United States are distinct from other ethnic minorities because they have experienced colonization as the original inhabitants. Social and health disparities are connected to a context of historical oppression—the chronic, pervasive, and intergenerational experiences of oppression that, over time, may be normalized, imposed, and internalized into the daily lives of many Indigenous peoples (including individuals, families, and communities). As part of the critical Framework of Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence (FHORT), in this article, we introduce the Historical Oppression Scale (HOS), a scale assessing internalized and externalized oppression. Our study reports on survey data (N = 127) from a larger convergent mixed-methodology study with scale items derived from thematic analysis of qualitative data (N = 436), which informed the resultant 10-item scale. After six cases were removed from the 127 participants who participated in the quantitative component to the study due to missing data across two tribes, the sample size for analysis was 121. Confirmatory factor analysis testing of the hypothesized unidimensional construct indicated acceptable model fit (X2 = 58.10, (Formula presented.) 1.94, CFI =.98, TLI =.97, RMSEA =.088, 90% CI =.05,.12). Reliability of the 10-item scale was excellent (α =.97) and convergent and discriminant validity were established. The HOS explicates complex associations between historical oppression and health and social disparities and may be an important clinical and research tool in an understudied area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)288-303
Number of pages16
JournalTranscultural Psychiatry
Volume57
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Indigenous peoples of the United States are distinct from other ethnic minorities because they have experienced colonization as the original inhabitants. Social and health disparities are connected to a context of historical oppression—the chronic, pervasive, and intergenerational experiences of oppression that, over time, may be normalized, imposed, and internalized into the daily lives of many Indigenous peoples (including individuals, families, and communities). As part of the critical Framework of Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence (FHORT), in this article, we introduce the Historical Oppression Scale (HOS), a scale assessing internalized and externalized oppression. Our study reports on survey data ( N  = 127) from a larger convergent mixed-methodology study with scale items derived from thematic analysis of qualitative data ( N  = 436), which informed the resultant 10-item scale. After six cases were removed from the 127 participants who participated in the quantitative component to the study due to missing data across two tribes, the sample size for analysis was 121. Confirmatory factor analysis testing of the hypothesized unidimensional construct indicated acceptable model fit ( X 2  = 58.10, X 2 / df = 1.94, CFI = .98, TLI = .97, RMSEA = .088, 90% CI = .05, .12). Reliability of the 10-item scale was excellent (α = .97) and convergent and discriminant validity were established. The HOS explicates complex associations between historical oppression and health and social disparities and may be an important clinical and research tool in an understudied area. American Indian health disparities historical oppression historical oppression scale historical trauma Indigenous peoples Native American Silberman Fund Faculty Grant Program 55278 Fahs-Beck Fund for Research and Experimentation https://doi.org/10.13039/100008591 552745 Carol Lavin Bernick Research Grant at Tulane University Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development https://doi.org/10.13039/100009633 K12HD043451 the Global South Research Grant through the New Orleans Center for the Gulf South at Tulane University National Institute of General Medical Sciences https://doi.org/10.13039/100000057 U54 GM104940 Newcomb College Institute Faculty Grant at Tulane University edited-state corrected-proof typesetter ts2

Keywords

  • American Indian
  • Indigenous peoples
  • Native American
  • health disparities
  • historical oppression
  • historical oppression scale
  • historical trauma

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