The histone demethylase LSD1 plays a pivotal role in cellular differentiation, particularly in silencing lineage-specific genes. However, little is known about how LSD1 regulates neurosensory differentiation in the inner ear. Here we show that LSD1 interacts directly with the transcription factor Pax2 to form the NuRD co-repressor complex at the Pax2 target gene loci in a mouse otic neuronal progenitor cell line (VOT-N33). VOT-N33 cells expressing a Pax2-response element reporter were GFP-negative when untreated, but became GFP positive after forced differentiation or treatment with a potent LSD inhibitor. Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 activity resulted in the enrichment of mono- and di-methylation of H3K4, upregulation of sensory neuronal genes and an increase in the number of sensory neurons in mouse inner ear organoids. Together, these results identify the LSD1/NuRD complex as a previously unrecognized modulator for Pax2-mediated neuronal differentiation in the inner ear.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01 DC013294 and R01DC015788. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2018 Patel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.