This paper examines the normative orientations of doctoral students with respect to academic research. In particular, it analyzes the effects of graduate department structure, department climate, and students' mentoring experiences on students' subscription to the traditional norms of science and to alternative counternorms. Findings are based on data from a nationwide survey of students in chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology, and sociology. The analysis demonstrates substantial ambivalence among graduate students about the traditional norms of academic research. It also reveals significant differences in the normative orientations of U.S. and international students.