We review theoretical and numerical models of the glymphatic system, which circulates cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid around the brain, facilitating solute transport. Models enable hypothesis development and predictions of transport, with clinical applications including drug delivery, stroke, cardiac arrest, and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. We sort existing models into broad categories by anatomical function: Perivascular flow, transport in brain parenchyma, interfaces to perivascular spaces, efflux routes, and links to neuronal activity. Needs and opportunities for future work are highlighted wherever possible; new models, expanded models, and novel experiments to inform models could all have tremendous value for advancing the field.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
All authors attended the workshop “The glymphatic system: From theoretical models to clinical applications,” engaged in extended discussion, and wrote the paper collaboratively. We declare no conflicts of interest.
© 2022 The Author(s)
- Systems biology
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article