The GAINS project: Outcome of smoking cessation strategies in four urban Native American clinics

Karen M. Johnson, Harry A. Lando, Linda S. Schmid, Leif I. Solberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


This study was designed to assess the capability of the Doctors Helping Smokers (DHS) model to produce an increase in smoking cessation over controls within four urban Indian Health clinics. A total of 601 Native American smokers were enrolled, surveyed, and measured for cardiovascular risk factors. Of those present in treatment clinics at 1-year follow-up, 7,1% reported being abstinent vs. 4.9% in the control group. Of those who made at least one visit to the clinic during the treatment year, 9.4% self-reported being abstinent in the treatment sites vs. 3.9% in the control group (p = .04). Cotinine validated quits for all enrollees, regardless of whether they attended the clinic during the intervention, are 6.7% (intervention) and 6.8% (control). Number of quit attempts and future quit intentions were greater in the intervention group. Recommendations for future intervention efforts include earlier contact with clinicians, clinic involvement in preplanning, developing the program around the principles and realities of each site, building in more extensive components, and utilizing additional community resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-218
Number of pages12
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1997

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by Grant ROl HL43615 from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. The authors wish to thank the American Indian Health Care Association; the administration and staff of the Indian Health Board of Minneapolis: the Seattle Health Board; Spokane Urban Indian & Community Health Services; and the Milwaukee Indian Health Centers, for their cooperation in this project. We also thank Cheryl Bernstein and Sharon White for their work on data collection and data management. Requests for reprints should be sent to Karen M. Johnson, MPH, Division of Education and Research, Duluth Clinic, 400 East Third Street, Duluth, MN 55805.


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