The fluconazole era: Management of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis in the nonneutropenic patient

Katherine M. Kramer, Debra J. Skaar, Bruce H. Ackerman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hematogenously disseminated candidiasis arising from nosocomial fungal infection is a life-threatening complication in critically ill, nonneutropenic patients. The overall nosocomial fungal infection rate in United States hospitals doubled from 1980-1990. Until recently, amphotericin B was the only agent available for the treatment of life-threatening candidal infections, but its use is plagued by toxicities including nephrotoxicity and infusion-related reactions such as rigors and hypotension. The availability of fluconazole, which is regarded as much less toxic than amphotericin B, prompted a surge in research to determine if it is as efficacious in the management of candidemia and hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Complicating the interpretation of studies is the broad range of infection severity, from candidemia that may be transient and self-limiting to life- threatening hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Clinical trials comparing fluconazole and amphotericin B demonstrate the efficacy of fluconazole for catheter-associated candidemia in critically ill patients when the likely pathogen is Candida albicans. Amphotericin B should remain the first-line agent for the management of candidemia and hematogenously disseminated candidiasis in all other patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-548
Number of pages11
JournalPharmacotherapy
Volume17
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 1997

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