The FIRO model of family therapy: Implications of factor analysis

R. Julian Hafner, Mike W. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Schutz's FIRO model contains three main elements: inclusion, control, and affection. It is used widely in mental health research and practice, but has received little empirical validation. The present study is based on factor analysis of the responses to a FIRO questionnaire of 120 normal couples and 191 couples who were attending a clinic for marital/psychiatric problems. Results confirmed the validity of the FIRO model for women only. The differences between the sexes reflected a considerable degree of sex‐role stereotyping, the clinical implications of which are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)974-979
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of clinical psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1989


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