The Financial Identity Scale (FIS): A multinational validation and measurement invariance study among emerging adults

Angela Sorgente, Rimantas Vosylis, Margherita Lanz, Joyce Serido, Soeyon Shim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The transition from financial dependence on one’s parents to financial self-sufficiency is one of the most relevant transitions during emerging adulthood. It is important to have an instrument able to assess emerging adults’ financial capabilities and to detect its change over time. The current article aims to collect international evidence of the Financial Identity Scale (FIS) validity and reliability. Cross-sectional data collected from 2,501 emerging adults aged 18–25 and belonging to three different countries—U.S. (n = 1,535), Italy (n = 485), and Lithuania (n = 481)—were adopted to test score structure validity, generalizability, sensitivity to difference, criterion-related validity, and internal consistency. Instead, four-wave longitudinal data, available for the American sample only (n = 1,900), were adopted to test FIS structural stability and sensitivity to change. As recommended by the contemporary view of validity, different structural equation models were performed. Findings suggest that FIS scores are valid and reliable. The implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-574
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Data collection in the U.S. was funded by the National Endowment for Financial Education, Great Lakes Higher Education Corporation & Affiliates, and Citi Foundation. The data collection in Italy was partially funded by Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (D1/2017), grant to Margherita Lanz. The data collection in Lithuania was funded by the European Social Fund under the No. 09.3.3-LMT-K-712 “Development of Competencies of Scientists, other Researchers and Students through Practical Research Activities” grant to Rimantas Vosylis.


  • Financial identity
  • cross-cultural
  • measurement invariance
  • reliability
  • validity

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