The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients

T. B. Adams, J. Doull, V. J. Feron, J. I. Goodman, L. J. Marnett, I. C. Munro, P. M. Newberne, P. S. Portoghese, R. L. Smith, W. J. Waddell, B. M. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This is the fifth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually taking into account the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of pyrazine derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)429-451
Number of pages23
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume40
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 23 2002

Fingerprint

Pyrazines
pyrazines
Flavors
ingredients
flavor
chemical derivatives
flavorings
Derivatives
Safety
extracts
toxicology
pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
Metabolism
Toxicology
metabolism

Keywords

  • Flavoring agents
  • Food safety
  • GRAS
  • Pyrazine derivatives

Cite this

Adams, T. B., Doull, J., Feron, V. J., Goodman, J. I., Marnett, L. J., Munro, I. C., ... Wagner, B. M. (2002). The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40(4), 429-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(01)00123-5

The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients. / Adams, T. B.; Doull, J.; Feron, V. J.; Goodman, J. I.; Marnett, L. J.; Munro, I. C.; Newberne, P. M.; Portoghese, P. S.; Smith, R. L.; Waddell, W. J.; Wagner, B. M.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 40, No. 4, 23.03.2002, p. 429-451.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, TB, Doull, J, Feron, VJ, Goodman, JI, Marnett, LJ, Munro, IC, Newberne, PM, Portoghese, PS, Smith, RL, Waddell, WJ & Wagner, BM 2002, 'The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients', Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 429-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(01)00123-5
Adams TB, Doull J, Feron VJ, Goodman JI, Marnett LJ, Munro IC et al. The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2002 Mar 23;40(4):429-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(01)00123-5
Adams, T. B. ; Doull, J. ; Feron, V. J. ; Goodman, J. I. ; Marnett, L. J. ; Munro, I. C. ; Newberne, P. M. ; Portoghese, P. S. ; Smith, R. L. ; Waddell, W. J. ; Wagner, B. M. / The FEMA GRAS assessment of pyrazine derivatives used as flavor ingredients. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2002 ; Vol. 40, No. 4. pp. 429-451.
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