The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients

T. B. Adams, S. M. Cohen, J. Doull, V. J. Feron, J. I. Goodman, L. J. Marnett, I. C. Munro, P. S. Portoghese, R. L. Smith, W. J. Waddell, B. M. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of phenethylalcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food, their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1179-1206
Number of pages28
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume43
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005

Fingerprint

Phenylethyl Alcohol
Acetals
Flavors
flavorings
Aldehydes
aldehydes
Esters
ingredients
flavor
esters
Safety
Acids
acids
extracts
no observed adverse effect level
margin of safety
traditional foods
toxicology
pharmacokinetics
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level

Keywords

  • FEMA GRAS
  • Flavoring ingredients
  • PEA

Cite this

Adams, T. B., Cohen, S. M., Doull, J., Feron, V. J., Goodman, J. I., Marnett, L. J., ... Wagner, B. M. (2005). The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(8), 1179-1206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.013

The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients. / Adams, T. B.; Cohen, S. M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V. J.; Goodman, J. I.; Marnett, L. J.; Munro, I. C.; Portoghese, P. S.; Smith, R. L.; Waddell, W. J.; Wagner, B. M.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 01.08.2005, p. 1179-1206.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, TB, Cohen, SM, Doull, J, Feron, VJ, Goodman, JI, Marnett, LJ, Munro, IC, Portoghese, PS, Smith, RL, Waddell, WJ & Wagner, BM 2005, 'The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients', Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1179-1206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.013
Adams, T. B. ; Cohen, S. M. ; Doull, J. ; Feron, V. J. ; Goodman, J. I. ; Marnett, L. J. ; Munro, I. C. ; Portoghese, P. S. ; Smith, R. L. ; Waddell, W. J. ; Wagner, B. M. / The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005 ; Vol. 43, No. 8. pp. 1179-1206.
@article{211c5f20e6c34423ad262a150de3f6dd,
title = "The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients",
abstract = "This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of phenethylalcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food, their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.",
keywords = "FEMA GRAS, Flavoring ingredients, PEA",
author = "Adams, {T. B.} and Cohen, {S. M.} and J. Doull and Feron, {V. J.} and Goodman, {J. I.} and Marnett, {L. J.} and Munro, {I. C.} and Portoghese, {P. S.} and Smith, {R. L.} and Waddell, {W. J.} and Wagner, {B. M.}",
year = "2005",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.013",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "43",
pages = "1179--1206",
journal = "Food and Chemical Toxicology",
issn = "0278-6915",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients

AU - Adams, T. B.

AU - Cohen, S. M.

AU - Doull, J.

AU - Feron, V. J.

AU - Goodman, J. I.

AU - Marnett, L. J.

AU - Munro, I. C.

AU - Portoghese, P. S.

AU - Smith, R. L.

AU - Waddell, W. J.

AU - Wagner, B. M.

PY - 2005/8/1

Y1 - 2005/8/1

N2 - This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of phenethylalcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food, their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

AB - This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of phenethylalcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food, their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

KW - FEMA GRAS

KW - Flavoring ingredients

KW - PEA

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=20444413461&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=20444413461&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.013

DO - 10.1016/j.fct.2004.11.013

M3 - Review article

VL - 43

SP - 1179

EP - 1206

JO - Food and Chemical Toxicology

JF - Food and Chemical Toxicology

SN - 0278-6915

IS - 8

ER -