The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

T. B. Adams, S. M. Cohen, J. Doull, V. J. Feron, J. I. Goodman, L. J. Marnett, I. C. Munro, P. S. Portoghese, R. L. Smith, W. J. Waddell, B. M. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of hydroxy- and alkoxy-benzyl derivatives was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1241-1271
Number of pages31
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume43
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005

Fingerprint

Flavors
flavorings
ingredients
flavor
chemical derivatives
Derivatives
Safety
extracts
no observed adverse effect level
margin of safety
traditional foods
toxicology
pharmacokinetics
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Food
Pharmacokinetics
excretion
Metabolism
Toxicology
metabolism

Keywords

  • Alkoxybenzylderivatives
  • FEMA GRAS
  • Flavoring ingredients
  • Hydroxybenzyl derivatives

Cite this

Adams, T. B., Cohen, S. M., Doull, J., Feron, V. J., Goodman, J. I., Marnett, L. J., ... Wagner, B. M. (2005). The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(8), 1241-1271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.018

The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. / Adams, T. B.; Cohen, S. M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V. J.; Goodman, J. I.; Marnett, L. J.; Munro, I. C.; Portoghese, P. S.; Smith, R. L.; Waddell, W. J.; Wagner, B. M.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 01.08.2005, p. 1241-1271.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, TB, Cohen, SM, Doull, J, Feron, VJ, Goodman, JI, Marnett, LJ, Munro, IC, Portoghese, PS, Smith, RL, Waddell, WJ & Wagner, BM 2005, 'The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients', Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1241-1271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.018
Adams, T. B. ; Cohen, S. M. ; Doull, J. ; Feron, V. J. ; Goodman, J. I. ; Marnett, L. J. ; Munro, I. C. ; Portoghese, P. S. ; Smith, R. L. ; Waddell, W. J. ; Wagner, B. M. / The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005 ; Vol. 43, No. 8. pp. 1241-1271.
@article{fa67c07bdddc467c9e13cf87616fec11,
title = "The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients",
abstract = "This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of hydroxy- and alkoxy-benzyl derivatives was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.",
keywords = "Alkoxybenzylderivatives, FEMA GRAS, Flavoring ingredients, Hydroxybenzyl derivatives",
author = "Adams, {T. B.} and Cohen, {S. M.} and J. Doull and Feron, {V. J.} and Goodman, {J. I.} and Marnett, {L. J.} and Munro, {I. C.} and Portoghese, {P. S.} and Smith, {R. L.} and Waddell, {W. J.} and Wagner, {B. M.}",
year = "2005",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.018",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "43",
pages = "1241--1271",
journal = "Food and Chemical Toxicology",
issn = "0278-6915",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The FEMA GRAS assessment of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients

AU - Adams, T. B.

AU - Cohen, S. M.

AU - Doull, J.

AU - Feron, V. J.

AU - Goodman, J. I.

AU - Marnett, L. J.

AU - Munro, I. C.

AU - Portoghese, P. S.

AU - Smith, R. L.

AU - Waddell, W. J.

AU - Wagner, B. M.

PY - 2005/8/1

Y1 - 2005/8/1

N2 - This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of hydroxy- and alkoxy-benzyl derivatives was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

AB - This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of hydroxy- and alkoxy-benzyl derivatives was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.

KW - Alkoxybenzylderivatives

KW - FEMA GRAS

KW - Flavoring ingredients

KW - Hydroxybenzyl derivatives

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=20444368084&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=20444368084&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.018

DO - 10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.018

M3 - Review article

VL - 43

SP - 1241

EP - 1271

JO - Food and Chemical Toxicology

JF - Food and Chemical Toxicology

SN - 0278-6915

IS - 8

ER -