The FEMA GRAS assessment of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters used as flavor ingredients

T. B. Adams, M. M. McGowen, M. C. Williams, S. M. Cohen, V. J. Feron, J. I. Goodman, L. J. Marnett, I. C. Munro, P. S. Portoghese, R. L. Smith, W. J. Waddell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This publication is the 11th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. The list of GRAS substances has now grown to more than 2100 substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. In this monograph, a detailed interpretation is presented on the renal carcinogenic potential of the aromatic secondary alcohol alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol, aromatic ketone benzophenone, and corresponding alcohol benzhydrol. The relevance of these effects to the flavor use of these substances is also discussed. The group of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-201
Number of pages31
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume45
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2007

Fingerprint

Flavors
ketones
Ketones
aromatic compounds
Esters
ingredients
alcohols
flavor
esters
Alcohols
Safety
extracts
GRAS substances
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
benzophenone
no observed adverse effect level
margin of safety
Pharmacokinetics
Toxicology
flavorings

Keywords

  • Aromatic ketones
  • FEMA GRAS
  • Flavoring ingredients

Cite this

Adams, T. B., McGowen, M. M., Williams, M. C., Cohen, S. M., Feron, V. J., Goodman, J. I., ... Waddell, W. J. (2007). The FEMA GRAS assessment of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(2), 171-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.029

The FEMA GRAS assessment of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters used as flavor ingredients. / Adams, T. B.; McGowen, M. M.; Williams, M. C.; Cohen, S. M.; Feron, V. J.; Goodman, J. I.; Marnett, L. J.; Munro, I. C.; Portoghese, P. S.; Smith, R. L.; Waddell, W. J.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 01.02.2007, p. 171-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, TB, McGowen, MM, Williams, MC, Cohen, SM, Feron, VJ, Goodman, JI, Marnett, LJ, Munro, IC, Portoghese, PS, Smith, RL & Waddell, WJ 2007, 'The FEMA GRAS assessment of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters used as flavor ingredients', Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 171-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.029
Adams, T. B. ; McGowen, M. M. ; Williams, M. C. ; Cohen, S. M. ; Feron, V. J. ; Goodman, J. I. ; Marnett, L. J. ; Munro, I. C. ; Portoghese, P. S. ; Smith, R. L. ; Waddell, W. J. / The FEMA GRAS assessment of aromatic substituted secondary alcohols, ketones, and related esters used as flavor ingredients. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2007 ; Vol. 45, No. 2. pp. 171-201.
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