The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients

T. B. Adams, C. Lucas Gavin, M. M. McGowen, W. J. Waddell, S. M. Cohen, V. J. Feron, L. J. Marnett, I. C. Munro, P. S. Portoghese, I. M.C.M. Rietjens, R. L. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2600 substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic potential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2471-2494
Number of pages24
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume49
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2011

Fingerprint

Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Flavors
Terpenes
flavorings
Hydrocarbons
terpenoids
aromatic compounds
hydrocarbons
ingredients
flavor
Safety
extracts
no observed adverse effect level
margin of safety
toxicology
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Pharmacokinetics
pharmacokinetics
Metabolism
excretion

Keywords

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons
  • FEMA GRAS
  • Flavoring ingredients
  • Terpene hydrocarbons

Cite this

Adams, T. B., Gavin, C. L., McGowen, M. M., Waddell, W. J., Cohen, S. M., Feron, V. J., ... Smith, R. L. (2011). The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49(10), 2471-2494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.011

The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients. / Adams, T. B.; Gavin, C. Lucas; McGowen, M. M.; Waddell, W. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Feron, V. J.; Marnett, L. J.; Munro, I. C.; Portoghese, P. S.; Rietjens, I. M.C.M.; Smith, R. L.

In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 49, No. 10, 01.10.2011, p. 2471-2494.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Adams, TB, Gavin, CL, McGowen, MM, Waddell, WJ, Cohen, SM, Feron, VJ, Marnett, LJ, Munro, IC, Portoghese, PS, Rietjens, IMCM & Smith, RL 2011, 'The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients', Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 2471-2494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.011
Adams, T. B. ; Gavin, C. Lucas ; McGowen, M. M. ; Waddell, W. J. ; Cohen, S. M. ; Feron, V. J. ; Marnett, L. J. ; Munro, I. C. ; Portoghese, P. S. ; Rietjens, I. M.C.M. ; Smith, R. L. / The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients. In: Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2011 ; Vol. 49, No. 10. pp. 2471-2494.
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