The feasibility of monitoring NF-κB associated cytokines: TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8 in whole saliva for the malignant transformation of oral lichen planus

Nelson L. Rhodus, Bin Cheng, Sandra Myers, Lindsay Miller, Vu Ho, Frank Ondrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations

Abstract

Previous investigations have demonstrated that immune activation and chronic inflammation may be one of the causes of oncogenesis. A previous study from our lab has shown significant increases of NF-κB dependent cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8 in different oral fluids from oral lichen planus (OLP) patients. The aim of this analysis was to explore the potential of detecting these cytokines in whole unstimulated saliva (WUS) in monitoring the malignant transformation of OLP. Thirteen patients with OLP (with epithelial dysplasia), 13 cases with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and 13 age-sex matched controls were enrolled in the study. The WUS samples were collected and the level of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8 in WUS was determined by ELISA. In moderate and severe dysplasia, the level of each cytokine was significantly higher than in control. In moderate dysplasia, TNF-α and IL-1α were significantly increased at a level without difference from OSCC, but IL-6 and IL-8 was detected at a concentration significantly lower than OSCC. In severe dysplasia, the level of TNF-α was also not significantly different from that of OSCC, and the level of IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8 was still significantly lower than that of OSCC. The level of four cytokines between smokers and non-smokers in each group did not show a significant difference. These results indicate that the change of NF-κB dependent cytokines in WUS may in part reflect the malignant transformation of OLP and the analysis of these cytokines and may provide a useful, non-invasive surrogate endpoint for monitoring malignant transformation as well as the therapeutic response of OLP. This is the first in vivo study utilizing saliva to confirm preclinical data that NF-κB is upregulated in oral carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-82
Number of pages6
JournalMolecular Carcinogenesis
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2005

Keywords

  • Malignant transformation
  • NF-kappaB dependent cytokines
  • Oral lichen planus
  • Whole unstimulated saliva

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