The family life and adjustment of hmong american sons and daughters

Richard M. Lee, Kyoung Rae Jung, Jenny C. Su, Alisia G.T.T. Tran, Nazneen F. Bahrassa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


We examined gender differences in intergenerational family conflict and its associations with psychological and academic adjustment using a United States sample of 121 Hmong American first-year college students. Hmong women and men reported similar levels of family conflict. Family conflict was related to psychological distress, above and beyond neuroticism. Gender moderated the relationship between family conflict and substance usage and academic performance. For Hmong college men, higher family conflict was associated with lower rates of smoking and higher rates of completing the first year of college. For Hmong college women, higher family conflict was associated with greater likelihood of alcohol consumption in their lifetime.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)549-558
Number of pages10
JournalSex Roles
Issue number7-8 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Academic adjustment
  • Asian American
  • Drug use
  • Family conflicts
  • Gender
  • Hmong
  • Mental health


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