The evolutionary history of Lipsothrix Loew (Diptera:Tipuloidea) inferred through systematic revision and historical biogeographical analysis

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Abstract

The evolutionary history of the crane fly genus Lipsothrix Lowe, 1873 was examined through a systematic revision of specimens maintained in natural history collections, parsimony analysis using TNT based on immature and adult morphology, and dispersal-vicariance analyses in RASP (Bayesian and S-DIVA). The genus Lipsothrix was found to contain 29 valid species, one subspecies (L. nobilis iranica) and three species maintained but in need of further evaluation (Lipsothrix burmica, L. heitfeldi, L. yakushimae). One species complex (L. shasta complex) was further resolved using ordination and cluster analyses. One new species is described, L. nullusarma, sp. nov., and three species are synonymised (L. fulva, L. mirifica, L. yamamotoana omogoensis). Phylogenetic analysis recovered a strongly supported and monophyletic Lipsothrix. The historical biogeographical analyses of Lipsothrix inferred an ancestral area in the Western Palearctic region that likely dates to the Eocene. One, or several, dispersal events occurred from the Western Palearctic before major diversification events occurred in the Oriental and Eastern Palearctic+Nearctic regions. Two major paleogeographical developments occurring in the Oriental and Eastern Palearctic+Nearctic regions are largely responsible for Lipsothrix diversification, the collision of the Indian plate with Asia and the rise of the trans-Beringian land bridges during the Tertiary and Quaternary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)239-286
Number of pages48
JournalInvertebrate Systematics
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

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