The evolution of plant functional variation: Traits, spectra, and strategies

P. B. Reich, I. J. Wright, J. Cavender-Bares, J. M. Craine, J. Oleksyn, M. Westoby, M. B. Walters

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

765 Scopus citations

Abstract

Variation in plant functional traits results from evolutionary and environmental drivers that operate at a variety of different scales, which makes it a challenge to differentiate among them. In this article we describe patterns of functional trait variation and trait correlations within and among habitats in relation to several environmental and trade-off axes. We then ask whether such patterns reflect natural selection and can be considered plant strategies. In so doing we highlight evidence that demonstrates that (1) patterns of trait variation across resource and environmental gradients (light, water, nutrients, and temperature) probably reflect adaptation, (2) plant trait variation typically involves multiple-correlated traits that arise because of inevitable trade-offs among traits and across levels of whole-plant integration and that must be understood from a whole-plant perspective, and (3) such adaptation may be globally generalizable for like conditions; i.e., the set of traits (collections of traits in syndromes) of taxa can be considered as "plant strategies".

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S143-S164
JournalInternational Journal of Plant Sciences
Volume164
Issue numberSUPPL. 3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2003

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Fitness
  • Functional groups
  • Plant traits
  • Selection

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