The evolution of metabolic/bariatric surgery

Henry Buchwald

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

168 Scopus citations


Metabolic surgery is defined as "the operative manipulation of a normal organ or organ system to achieve a biological result for a potential health gain." The evolution of metabolic/bariatric surgery can be viewed from several perspectives: (1) realization that bariatric surgery has always been and will always be metabolic surgery; (2) lessons to be learned from the six dominant procedures; (3) overview of the other operations that have been proposed; (4) discussion of mechanisms of action; (5) physiology of energy metabolism; and (6) introduction to the emerging concept of inflammation. This review will end with thoughts on the present and future outcomes from the knowledge we have gained from metabolic/bariatric surgery. The author concludes with the statement: Metabolic surgery is cognitive surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1126-1135
Number of pages10
JournalObesity Surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Biliopancreatic diversion
  • Duodenal switch
  • Gastric band
  • Gastric bypass
  • Gastric vagal blocking
  • Metabolic surgery
  • Obesity surgery
  • Sleeve gastrectomy
  • Vertical banded gastroplasty


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