The epidemiology of childhood leukemia with a focus on birth weight and diet

Richard L. Tower, Logan G. Spector

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer and a major source of morbidity and mortality. The etiology of childhood leukemia remains largely unknown. Cytogenetic abnormalities determine disease subtypes, prognosis, clinical presentation, and course and may help in discovering etiological factors. Epidemiologic investigations of leukemia are complicated by many factors, including the rarity of the disease, necessitating careful study design. Two emerging areas of interest in leukemia etiology are birth weight and diet. High birth weight has been associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia. The biological mechanism behind this association may involve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which is associated with high birth weight. IGF-I may act by increasing the absolute number of stem cells available for transformation, stimulating the growth of cells that are already transformed, or a combination of effects. Diet has been linked with leukemia. Maternal dietary DNA topoisomerase II (DNAt2) inhibitor intake is associated with infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with the MLL gene translocation. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased leukemia risk and, relatedly, lack of maternal folate supplementation has been associated with increased childhood leukemia risk, possibly by causing DNA hypomethylation and increased DNA strand breaks. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms modify this risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-242
Number of pages40
JournalCritical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Volume44
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2007

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Epidemiology
Nutrition
Birth Weight
Leukemia
Diet
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Genes
Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
DNA
Vegetables
Fruits
Stem cells
Polymorphism
Folic Acid
Cells
Mothers
DNA Breaks
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Chromosome Aberrations

Keywords

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Cancer
  • Cytogenetics
  • DNA topoisomerase type II
  • Flavonoids
  • Folate
  • Fruits
  • Incidence
  • Insulin-like growth factors
  • Methods
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase
  • Pediatrics
  • Prognosis
  • Vegetables

Cite this

The epidemiology of childhood leukemia with a focus on birth weight and diet. / Tower, Richard L.; Spector, Logan G.

In: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 3, 01.05.2007, p. 203-242.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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