Through this study, attempts were made to (a) define the concept of implicit team identification (iTeam ID), (b) examine the effects the interactions between iTeam ID and emotions exert on flow, and (c) examine the behavioral consequences of flow in the context of spectator sports. The opponent process and implicit memory theories served as the study's main theoretical frameworks. An experiment was conducted in which we developed the team identification implicit association test (Team ID IAT) as a measure of iTeam ID and manipulated spectators' emotions based on their retrospective spectating experiences. We conclude from the findings that anger, fear, and sadness paradoxically enhanced flow experiences and subsequent consumption behaviors for spectators with stronger iTeam ID, whereas happiness was universally appealing regardless of the level of iTeam ID. A recommendation is to strategically create experiences that elicit both positive and negative emotions in spectators to encourage flow.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Journal of Sport Management|
|State||Published - Jul 1 2018|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc.
- Implicit association test
- Negative emotions
- Spectator sports
- Unconscious cognition