The effects of estrogen on temporomandibular joint pain as influenced by trigeminal caudalis neurons

Akimasa Tashiro, David A. Bereiter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The signs and symptoms of persistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ)/muscle disorder (TMJD) pain suggest the existence of a central neural dysfunction or a problem of pain amplification. The etiology of chronic TMJD is not known; however, female sex hormones have been identified as significant risk factors. Converging lines of evidence indicate that the junctional region between the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and the upper cervical spinal cord, termed the Vc/C1-2 region, is the primary site for the synaptic integration of sensory input from TMJ noci-ceptors. In this paper, the mechanisms behind the estrogen effects on the processing of nociceptive inputs by neurons in the Vc/C1-2 region reported by human and animal studies are reviewed. The Vc/C1-2 region has direct connections to endogenous pain and autonomic control pathways, which are modified by estrogen status and are suggested to be critical for somato-motor and autonomic reflex responses of TMJ-related sensory signals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-155
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Oral Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors were supported by a grant from the JSPS KAKENHI 18K06884 and a grant from the National Institutes of Health (DE026499).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Nihon University, School of Dentistry. All rights reserved.


  • Estrogen
  • Pain control system
  • Temporomandibular joint/ muscle disorder
  • Trigeminal subnucleus caudalis
  • Upper cervical spinal cord

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


Dive into the research topics of 'The effects of estrogen on temporomandibular joint pain as influenced by trigeminal caudalis neurons'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this