Objectives To evaluate the effects of a workplace-based intervention on actigraphic and self-reported sleep outcomes in an extended-care setting. Design Cluster randomized trial. Setting Extended-care (nursing) facilities. Participants US employees and managers at nursing homes. Nursing homes were randomly selected to intervention or control settings. Intervention The Work, Family, and Health Study developed an intervention aimed at reducing work-family conflict within a 4-month work-family organizational change process. Employees participated in interactive sessions with facilitated discussions, role-playing, and games designed to increase control over work processes and work time. Managers completed training in family-supportive supervision. Measurements Primary actigraphic outcomes included total sleep duration, wake after sleep onset, nighttime sleep, variation in nighttime sleep, nap duration, and number of naps. Secondary survey outcomes included work-to-family conflict, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality. Measures were obtained at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Results A total of 1522 employees and 184 managers provided survey data at baseline. Managers and employees in the intervention arm showed no significant difference in sleep outcomes over time compared with control participants. Sleep outcomes were not moderated by work-to-family conflict or presence of children in the household for managers or employees. Age significantly moderated an intervention effect on nighttime sleep among employees (P = .040), where younger employees benefited more from the intervention. Conclusion In the context of an extended-care nursing home workplace, the intervention did not significantly alter sleep outcomes in either managers or employees. Moderating effects of age were identified where younger employees’ sleep outcomes benefited more from the intervention.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was conducted as part of the Work Family Health Network ( www.WorkFamilyHealthNetwork.org ), which is funded by a cooperative agreement through the National Institute of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ( U01HD051217 , U01HD051218 , U01HD051256 , and U01HD051276 ), National Institute on Aging ( U01AG027669 ), Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research , and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( U01OH008788 and U01HD059773 ). Grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ( R01HL107240 ), William T Grant Foundation , Alfred P Sloan Foundation , and the Administration for Children and Families have provided additional funding. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of these institutes and offices.
© 2016 National Sleep Foundation.