Introduction: We are interested in the metabolic response to ingested macronutrients and the interaction between macronutrients in meals. Recently, we have determined the insulin and glucose response to ingestion of lard, olive oil, or safflower oil, fat sources varying in fatty acid composition and carbohydrate (CHO), in the form of potato. Objective: Our aim was to determine the effect of these dietary fats ingested alone or with potato on glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-37 and 7-36 amide), and total and acyl-ghrelin concentrations. Methods: Healthy subjects ingested 25 g fat (lard, olive oil, or safflower oil), 50 g CHO (potato), 25 g fat with 50 g CHO, or water only. Glucagon, GLP-1 (7-37 and 7-36 amide), and total and acyl-ghrelin responses were determined over 4 h. Results: All fats when ingested alone increased glucagon. Glucagon increases were dramatically attenuated when fats were ingested with the potato. GLP-1 increased after all meals, but was greatest when fats were ingested alone. The fat-stimulated increase was completely negated when fats were ingested with potato. Both acylandtotal ghrelin decreased when only fats were ingested, as expected. When potato was ingested with any of the fats, the fat-induced decrease in acylghrelin response also was essentially negated. Paradoxically, ghrelin increased when potato alone was ingested. Conclusions: The current data indicate that the glucagon, GLP-1 and ghrelin responses to ingested fats, varying in fatty acid composition, are significantly affected by co-ingestion of CHO. Overall, the interaction between ingested foods in general is likely to be complex.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Merit Review funds from the Department of Veterans Affairs and a grant from the National Pork Board.