A diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) requires a conduct disorder (CD) diagnosis. A CD diagnosis is often obtained retrospectively. This study tested the influence of current behavior on CD recall and the association between recent behavior change and inconsistencies in contemporaneous and retrospective CD reports. Five hundred young adults reported ASPD; retrospective CD; current problem behavior; and, at ages 12 to 15 years, contemporaneous CD. Tree-positive, true-negative, false-positive, anti false-negative CD and ASPD groups were identified. The results supported the hypotheses. Participants whose current behavior agreed with past behavior provided reliable retrospective CD reports. Inaccurate diagnoses occurred among participants whose current behavior was inconsistent with past behavior, either becoming more problematic (CD and ASPD false positives) or less problematic (CD and ASPD false negatives) over time.