The effect of second-order schedule history on fixed-ratio performance maintained by orally-delivered phencyclidine in rhesus monkeys

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Abstract

Thirteen monkeys were trained to self-administer orally-delivered phencyclidine (0.25 mg/ml) and water under a concurrent fixed ratio (FR) 16 schedule. Phencyclidine was available from one lip-operated drinking device and water was available from another drinking device during daily 3-hr sessions. Seven monkeys were trained to respond under a second-order FR 240 (FR 20: brief stimulus) schedule. Upon completion of 4800 responses, the monkeys were allowed to self-administer 300 phencyclidine deliveries under an FR 1 schedule. After a mean of 33.3 sessions of second order schedule training, including 10 sessions at the terminal parameter, the monkeys were returned to the concurrent FR 16 schedule. Phencyclidine-maintained responding persisted at rates that were 42 percent higher than before second-order schedule training: however, concurrent water-maintained behavior increased only slighly. A second group of three monkeys were treated in an identical manner except that during second-order schedule training they received a saccharin solution (0.05%, wt/vol) instead of phencyclidine. After a mean of 30 sessions of second-order schedule training, including 10sessions at the terminal parameter, the monkeys were returned to the concurrent FR 16 schedule, and there was no consistent change in phencyclidine or water deliveries. A third group of three monkeys received 300 phencyclidine deliveries at the same time after session onset and for the same total number of sessions as the monkeys that received second-order schedule training with phencyclidine; however, this group was not required to respond under the second-order schedule to gain access to the phencyclidine deliveries. This group also showed no substantial change in phencyclidine or water deliveries as a result of their training condition. Thus, second-order schedule training with phencyclidine as a reinforcer generated high rates of responding which later produced specific and persistent increases in drug-maintained behavior under a simple FR schedule. These findings suggest that drug-reinforced behavior can be markedly influenced by brief behavioral and drug histories as well as by variables that are operating at the time the drug is self-administered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)779-787
Number of pages9
JournalPharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1984

Keywords

  • Drug history
  • Environmental variables
  • Oral drug self-administration
  • Phencyclidine
  • Rhesus monkeys
  • Schedule history
  • Second-order schedules

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