The Effect of Ketamine Versus Etomidate for Rapid Sequence Intubation on Maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Sarah K.S. Knack, Matt Prekker, Johanna C Moore, Lauren R Klein, Alexandra H. Atkins, James R. Miner, Brian Driver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The use of induction agents for rapid sequence intubation (RSI) has been associated with hypotension in critically ill patients. Choice of induction agent may be important and the most commonly used agents are etomidate and ketamine. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of a single dose of ketamine vs. etomidate for RSI on maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and incidence of hypotension. Methods: This single-center, randomized, parallel-group trial compared the use of ketamine and etomidate for RSI in critically ill adult patients in the emergency department. The study was performed under Exception from Informed Consent. The primary outcome was the maximum SOFA score within 3 days of hospitalization. Results: A total of 143 patients were enrolled in the trial, 70 in the ketamine group and 73 in the etomidate group. Maximum median SOFA score for the ketamine group was 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 5–9) vs. 7 (IQR 5–9) for etomidate with no significant difference (–0.2; 95% CI –1.4 to 1.1; p = 0.79). The incidence of post-intubation hypotension was 28% in the ketamine group vs. 26% in the etomidate group (difference 2%; 95% CI –13% to 17%). There were no significant differences in intensive care unit outcomes. Thirty-day mortality rate for the ketamine group was 11% (8 deaths) and for the etomidate group was 21% (15 deaths), which was not statistically different. Conclusions: There were no significant differences in maximum SOFA score or post-intubation hypotension between critically ill adults receiving ketamine vs. etomidate for RSI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e371-e382
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Volume65
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Keywords

  • etomidate
  • ketamine
  • rapid sequence intubation
  • sedation

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Journal Article

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