Global self-rated health (SRH) is increasingly a key indicator in the assessment of immigrant health. However, evidence of the impact on SRH of generational status, duration of residence in the US, and socioeconomic status (SES) among immigrants and their offspring is limited and inconsistent. We overcome limitations in existing research on this topic by using a uniquely large and diverse data source, the March Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS; 2003-2007) (n = 637,209). As a result, we are able to disaggregate results by race/ethnicity, account for country of origin, and consider the role of multiple dimensions of SES. We find that overall first-generation immigrants in the US have lower odds of poor/fair SRH compared to the third-generation. This association is particularly strong for blacks and Hispanics but not significant for Asians. Among first-generation Asians and Hispanics, longer duration of residence is positively associated with poor/fair SRH. Finally, socioeconomic gradients in SRH tend to be less pronounced among the first-generation (versus the third) and, within the first-generation, among recent arrivals (versus those with longer durations). Our results highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for multiple immigration-related variables and their interactions with race/ethnicity and SES. Otherwise, studies may misestimate SRH differences by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The continued growth of the US immigrant population and the second-generation underscore the need to examine patterns in immigrant health systematically.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University through a faculty research grant (Acevedo-Garcia, PI). The authors are founding members of the Crossnational Initiative on Place, Migration and Health (CIPMH). They thank the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Center for the Advancement of Health for support for CIPMH.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Self-rated health
- Socioeconomic gradients