Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to investigate the distinctiveness of hardiness (using the Short Hardiness Scale; Bartone, 1995) from the broader personality traits of negative emotionality and positive emotionality (NEM and PEM; assessed with items from the MMPI-2 PSY-5 scales); in a sample of 981 Army National Guard soldiers. Exploratory factor analyses demonstrated that hardiness items loaded on a separate factor from PEM and NEM items, and confirmatory factor analysis suggested that hardiness is not simply a sub-facet of either PEM or NEM. However, subsequent regression analyses found that hardiness did not predict symptoms of PTSD or depression beyond the effects of PEM and NEM among combat exposed soldiers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This material is based upon work supported in part by grants to Melissa A. Polusny, PhD, from the Minnesota Medical Foundation (3662-9227-06) and Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP; W81XWH-07-2-003). This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN. The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study, collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of data; preparation; review or approval of the manuscript. The corresponding author had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the Department of Defense. The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Darin Erickson, PhD for his assistance with conceptualization and analysis.
- Negative emotionality
- Positive emotionality
- Stress reaction