The development of proportional reasoning in the Arabian Gulf State of Qatar and the United States was examined. The sample consisted of 554 children from Qatar and the U.S. from the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. The children were administered two paper and pencil tests: the Orange Juice Test developed by Noelting (1980), which measured proportional reasoning, and the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Test, which was used as a nonverbal measure of general intelligence. Significant age group, sex, and country main effects and a significant Sex × Country interaction for proportional reasoning were determined even after controlling for nonverbal intelligence. © 1987 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.