The cyst-theca relationship of the dinoflagellate cyst Trinovantedinium pallidifulvum, with erection of Protoperidinium lousianensis sp. nov. and their phylogenetic position within the Conica group

Kenneth Neil Mertens, Haifeng Gu, Yoshihito Takano, Andrea M. Price, Vera Pospelova, Kara Bogus, Gerard J.M. Versteegh, Fabienne Marret, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais, Kazumi Matsuoka

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16 Scopus citations

Abstract

We establish the cyst-theca relationship of the dinoflagellate cyst species Trinovantedinium pallidifulvum Matsuoka 1987 based on germination experiments of specimens isolated from the Gulf of Mexico. We show that the motile stage is a new species, designated as Protoperidinium louisianensis. We also determine its phylogenetic position based on single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a single cell germinated from the Gulf of Mexico cysts. To further refine the phylogeny, we determined the large subunit (LSU) sequence through single-cell PCR of the cyst Selenopemphix undulata isolated from Brentwood Bay (Saanich Inlet, BC, Canada). The phylogeny shows that P. louisianensis is closest to P. shanghaiense, the motile stage of T. applanatum, and is consistent with the monophyly of the genus Trinovantedinium. Selenopemphix undulata belongs to a different clade than Selenopemphix quanta (alleged cyst of P. conicum), suggesting that the genus Selenopemphix is polyphyletic. Trinovantedinium pallidifulvum is widely distributed with occurrences in the Gulf of Mexico, the North Atlantic, the northeast Pacific and southeast Asia. In addition, we illustrate the two other extant species, Trinovantedinium applanatum and Trinovantedinium variabile, and two morphotypes of Trinovantedinium. Geochemical analyses of the cyst wall of T. pallidifulvum indicate the presence of amide groups in agreement with other heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, although the cyst wall of T. pallidifulvum also includes some unique features.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-202
Number of pages20
JournalPalynology
Volume41
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 3 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 AASP–The Palynological Society.

Keywords

  • Gulf of Mexico
  • Lake Saroma
  • Micro-FTIR
  • Saanich Inlet
  • Selenopemphix undulata
  • Wadden Sea

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