The Current State of Treatment and Future Directions in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

Madison Ernst, Alessio Giubellino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death among cutaneous malignancies. While its incidence is increasing, the most recent cancer statistics show a small but clear decrease in mortality rate. This trend reflects the introduction of novel and more effective therapeutic regimens, including the two cornerstones of melanoma therapy: immunotherapies and targeted therapies. Immunotherapies exploit the highly immunogenic nature of melanoma by modulating and priming the patient’s own immune system to attack the tumor. Treatments combining immunotherapies with targeted therapies, which disable the carcinogenic products of mutated cancer cells, have further increased treatment efficacy and durability. Toxicity and resistance, however, remain critical challenges to the field. The present review summarizes past treatments and novel therapeutic interventions and discusses current clinical trials and future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number822
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • combined therapies
  • immunotherapy
  • metastatic melanoma
  • targeted therapy
  • tumor relapse
  • tumor resistance

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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