The creation and validation of the Developmental Emotional Faces Stimulus Set

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The Developmental Emotional Faces Stimulus Set (DEFSS) is designed to provide a standardized set of emotional stimuli that includes both child and adult faces and that has been validated by participants across a wide range of ages. This article describes the creation and validation of the DEFSS, which includes 404 validated facial photographs of people between 8 and 30 years old displaying five different emotional expressions: happy, angry, fearful, sad, and neutral. The emotions in all photographs were identified correctly by 86 % of the raters (minimum 55 %), and validity did not vary as a function of the age group of the model or of the raters, indicating that the pictures are equally appropriate for use across the entire age range. Strengths and limitations of the DEFSS are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)960-966
Number of pages7
JournalBehavior Research Methods
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by an Institute of Child Development Departmental Small Grant and NIMH Training Grant Number 5T32MH015755.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Psychonomic Society, Inc.


  • Development
  • Emotions
  • Face processing
  • Stimulus set

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The creation and validation of the Developmental Emotional Faces Stimulus Set'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this