The craniomandibular index: Validity

James R. Fricton, Eric L Schiffman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Scopus citations


The CMI appears to be valid for use in clinical studies, but users must be aware of its numerous potential errors and its associated strict methodologic guidelines to ensure accuracy and reproducibility of results. The subjective nature of some items demands that the same rater who is unaware of the management status of the patient perform both evaluations. If multiple raters are used, it is recommended that the raters discuss all items, and compare scoring of demonstration subjects before the study and use a pressure algometer for muscle palpation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-228
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of prosthetic dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1987

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