The contribution of common CYP2A6 alleles to variation in nicotine metabolism among European-Americans

Joseph Bloom, Anthony L. Hinrichs, Jen C. Wang, Linda B von Weymarn, Evan D. Kharasch, Laura J. Bierut, Alison Goate, Sharon E Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objective: To study the association between cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotype and metabolism of nicotine to cotinine, identify functional polymorphisms, and develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism. Methods: The conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D 2-cotinine was quantified in 189 European-Americans and the contribution of CYP2A6 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine metabolism was assessed. Specifically, (i) single time point measures of D 2-cotinine/(D2-cotinine+D2-nicotine) after oral administration were used as a metric of CYP2A6 activity; (ii) the impact of CYP2A6 haplotype was treated as acting multiplicatively; (iii) parameter estimates were calculated for all haplotypes in the subject pool, defined by a set of polymorphisms previously reported to affect function, including gene copy number; and (iv) a minimum number of predictive polymorphisms were justified to be included in the model based on statistical evidence of differences between haplotypes. Results: The final model includes seven polymorphisms and fits the phenotype, 30-min after D2-nicotine oral administration, with R=0.719. The predictive power of the model is robust: parameter estimates calculated in men (n=89) predict the phenotype in women (n=100) with R=0.758 and vice versa with R=0.617; estimates calculated in current smokers (n=102) predict the phenotype in former-smokers (n=86) with R=0.690 and vice versa with R=0.703. Comparisons of haplotypes also demonstrate that CYP2A6*12 is a loss-of-function allele indistinguishable from CYP2A6*4 and CYP2A6*2 and that the CYP2A6*1B 5′-untranslated region conversion has negligible impact on metabolism. After controlling for CYP2A6 genotype, modest associations were found between increased metabolism and both female sex (P=4.8×10) and current smoking (P=0.02). Conclusion: Among European-Americans, seven polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene explain the majority of variability in the metabolism of nicotine to cotinine after oral administration. Parameters determined from this in-vivo experiment can be used to predict nicotine metabolism based on CYP2A6 genotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)403-416
Number of pages14
JournalPharmacogenetics and Genomics
Volume21
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011

Fingerprint

Nicotine
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Alleles
Cotinine
Haplotypes
Genotype
Oral Administration
Phenotype
Gene Dosage
5' Untranslated Regions
Genetic Models
Smoking

Keywords

  • cotinine
  • cytochrome P450 2A6
  • nicotine metabolism

Cite this

The contribution of common CYP2A6 alleles to variation in nicotine metabolism among European-Americans. / Bloom, Joseph; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Wang, Jen C.; von Weymarn, Linda B; Kharasch, Evan D.; Bierut, Laura J.; Goate, Alison; Murphy, Sharon E.

In: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, Vol. 21, No. 7, 01.07.2011, p. 403-416.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bloom, Joseph ; Hinrichs, Anthony L. ; Wang, Jen C. ; von Weymarn, Linda B ; Kharasch, Evan D. ; Bierut, Laura J. ; Goate, Alison ; Murphy, Sharon E. / The contribution of common CYP2A6 alleles to variation in nicotine metabolism among European-Americans. In: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. 2011 ; Vol. 21, No. 7. pp. 403-416.
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AU - Bloom, Joseph

AU - Hinrichs, Anthony L.

AU - Wang, Jen C.

AU - von Weymarn, Linda B

AU - Kharasch, Evan D.

AU - Bierut, Laura J.

AU - Goate, Alison

AU - Murphy, Sharon E

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N2 - Objective: To study the association between cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotype and metabolism of nicotine to cotinine, identify functional polymorphisms, and develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism. Methods: The conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D 2-cotinine was quantified in 189 European-Americans and the contribution of CYP2A6 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine metabolism was assessed. Specifically, (i) single time point measures of D 2-cotinine/(D2-cotinine+D2-nicotine) after oral administration were used as a metric of CYP2A6 activity; (ii) the impact of CYP2A6 haplotype was treated as acting multiplicatively; (iii) parameter estimates were calculated for all haplotypes in the subject pool, defined by a set of polymorphisms previously reported to affect function, including gene copy number; and (iv) a minimum number of predictive polymorphisms were justified to be included in the model based on statistical evidence of differences between haplotypes. Results: The final model includes seven polymorphisms and fits the phenotype, 30-min after D2-nicotine oral administration, with R=0.719. The predictive power of the model is robust: parameter estimates calculated in men (n=89) predict the phenotype in women (n=100) with R=0.758 and vice versa with R=0.617; estimates calculated in current smokers (n=102) predict the phenotype in former-smokers (n=86) with R=0.690 and vice versa with R=0.703. Comparisons of haplotypes also demonstrate that CYP2A6*12 is a loss-of-function allele indistinguishable from CYP2A6*4 and CYP2A6*2 and that the CYP2A6*1B 5′-untranslated region conversion has negligible impact on metabolism. After controlling for CYP2A6 genotype, modest associations were found between increased metabolism and both female sex (P=4.8×10) and current smoking (P=0.02). Conclusion: Among European-Americans, seven polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene explain the majority of variability in the metabolism of nicotine to cotinine after oral administration. Parameters determined from this in-vivo experiment can be used to predict nicotine metabolism based on CYP2A6 genotype.

AB - Objective: To study the association between cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) genotype and metabolism of nicotine to cotinine, identify functional polymorphisms, and develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism. Methods: The conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D 2-cotinine was quantified in 189 European-Americans and the contribution of CYP2A6 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine metabolism was assessed. Specifically, (i) single time point measures of D 2-cotinine/(D2-cotinine+D2-nicotine) after oral administration were used as a metric of CYP2A6 activity; (ii) the impact of CYP2A6 haplotype was treated as acting multiplicatively; (iii) parameter estimates were calculated for all haplotypes in the subject pool, defined by a set of polymorphisms previously reported to affect function, including gene copy number; and (iv) a minimum number of predictive polymorphisms were justified to be included in the model based on statistical evidence of differences between haplotypes. Results: The final model includes seven polymorphisms and fits the phenotype, 30-min after D2-nicotine oral administration, with R=0.719. The predictive power of the model is robust: parameter estimates calculated in men (n=89) predict the phenotype in women (n=100) with R=0.758 and vice versa with R=0.617; estimates calculated in current smokers (n=102) predict the phenotype in former-smokers (n=86) with R=0.690 and vice versa with R=0.703. Comparisons of haplotypes also demonstrate that CYP2A6*12 is a loss-of-function allele indistinguishable from CYP2A6*4 and CYP2A6*2 and that the CYP2A6*1B 5′-untranslated region conversion has negligible impact on metabolism. After controlling for CYP2A6 genotype, modest associations were found between increased metabolism and both female sex (P=4.8×10) and current smoking (P=0.02). Conclusion: Among European-Americans, seven polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene explain the majority of variability in the metabolism of nicotine to cotinine after oral administration. Parameters determined from this in-vivo experiment can be used to predict nicotine metabolism based on CYP2A6 genotype.

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