The concept of integration: A foundation for evaluating outcomes of nursing care

Bonnie L. Westra, Beth L. Rodgers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


Changes in the health care environment, an aging population, and an increase in chronic health conditions require consideration of the adequacy of concepts available for demonstrating the effectiveness of nursing care. One concept that has potential utility for nursing in this regard is the concept of integration. Analysis of the concept of integration was conducted to alleviate existing ambiguity and to explore ways in which this concept has been employed in diverse disciplines. The concept of integration is characterized primarily as a process of combination: two or more elements are merged with sufficient interaction so that unity of the newly formed entity is achieved. The attributes of the concept of integration, therefore, include process, combination, interaction, and unity. The concept of integration is useful in evaluation of reconciliation of past and present identities and altered role relationships within the environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)277-282
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Professional Nursing
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991


  • Concepts
  • Integration
  • Outcomes
  • Quality of care
  • Theory

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