A thorough understanding of valvar anatomy is essential for design engineers and clinicians in the development and/or employment of improved technologies or therapies for treating valvar pathologies. There are two arterial valves in the human heart - pulmonary and aortic valves. Both are complex structures whose normal anatomical components can vary greatly between individuals. We discuss the anatomy, pathology, and challenges relating to transcatheter and surgical repair/replacement of the arterial valves in a translational manner. The high prevalence of aortic valvar pathologies in the burgeoning elderly population, coupled with poor clinical outcomes for patients who go untreated, has resulted in prolific spending in the research and development of more effective and less traumatic therapies. The accelerated development of therapies for treating arterial valves has been guided by anatomical information gathered from high-resolution imaging technologies, which have focused attention on the need for complete understanding of arterial valvar clinical anatomies. This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy.
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Since the left and right coronary leaflets of the aortic valve sit adjacent to two sinuses and leaflets of the pulmonary root, this relationship can be used to name the pulmonary valvar leaflets (Fig. 5). Anatomically, the right and left pulmonary leaflets are supported by the adjacent component of the free-standing right ventricular infundibular sleeve. This is the distal part of the supraventricular crest, which also separates the pulmonary valve from the tricuspid valve. The nonadjacent leaflet is supported by the anterior wall of the infundibulum and is the most anterior part of the heart.
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- Aortic valve
- Pulmonary valve
- Valve anatomy
- Valve nomenclature
- Valve repair
- Valve replacement