Charles L. Steinhardt, Mathilde Jauzac, Ana Acebron, Hakim Atek, Peter Capak, Iary Davidzon, Dominique Eckert, David Harvey, Anton M. Koekemoer, Claudia D.P. Lagos, Guillaume Mahler, Mireia Montes, Anna Niemiec, Mario Nonino, P. A. Oesch, Johan Richard, Steven A. Rodney, Matthieu Schaller, Keren Sharon, Louis Gregory StrolgerJoseph Allingham, Adam Amara, Yannick Bahé, Céline Bœhm, Sownak Bose, Rychard J. Bouwens, Larry D. Bradley, Gabriel Brammer, Tom Broadhurst, Rodrigo Cañas, Renyue Cen, Benjamin Clément, Douglas Clowe, Dan Coe, Thomas Connor, Behnam Darvish, Jose M. Diego, Harald Ebeling, A. C. Edge, Eiichi Egami, Stefano Ettori, Andreas L. Faisst, Brenda Frye, Lukas J. Furtak, C. Gómez-Guijarro, J. D. Remolina González, Anthony Gonzalez, Or Graur, Daniel Gruen, David Harvey, Hagan Hensley, Beryl Hovis-Afflerbach, Pascale Jablonka, Saurabh W. Jha, Eric Jullo, Jean Paul Kneib, Vasily Kokorev, David J. Lagattuta, Marceau Limousin, Anja Von Der Linden, Nora B. Linzer, Adrian Lopez, Georgios E. Magdis, Richard Massey, Daniel C. Masters, Matteo Maturi, Curtis McCully, Sean L. McGee, Massimo Meneghetti, Bahram Mobasher, Leonidas A. Moustakas, Eric J. Murphy, Priyamvada Natarajan, Mark Neyrinck, Kyle O'Connor, Masamune Oguri, Amanda Pagul, Jason Rhodes, R. Michael Rich, Andrew Robertson, Mauro Sereno, Huanyuan Shan, Graham P. Smith, Albert Sneppen, Gordon K. Squires, Sut Ieng Tam, Céline Tchernin, Sune Toft, Keiichi Umetsu, John R. Weaver, R. J. Van Weeren, Liliya L.R. Williams, Tom J. Wilson, Lin Yan, Adi Zitrin

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61 Scopus citations


The Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields and Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is a 101 orbit + 101 parallel Cycle 25 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury program taking data from 2018 to 2020. BUFFALO will expand existing coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) in Wide Field Camera 3/IR F105W, F125W, and F160W and Advanced Camera for Surveys/WFC F606W and F814W around each of the six HFF clusters and flanking fields. This additional area has not been observed by HST but is already covered by deep multiwavelength data sets, including Spitzer and Chandra. As with the original HFF program, BUFFALO is designed to take advantage of gravitational lensing from massive clusters to simultaneously find high-redshift galaxies that would otherwise lie below HST detection limits and model foreground clusters to study the properties of dark matter and galaxy assembly. The expanded area will provide the first opportunity to study both cosmic variance at high redshift and galaxy assembly in the outskirts of the large HFF clusters. Five additional orbits are reserved for transient follow-up. BUFFALO data including mosaics, value-added catalogs, and cluster mass distribution models will be released via MAST on a regular basis as the observations and analysis are completed for the six individual clusters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number64
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2020

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